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Risk Limiting Audit

The risk-limiting audit is a procedure that provides strong statistical evidence that the election outcome is correct, or has a high probability of correcting an outcome that wouldn't match a full hand count of the ballots. The audit itself requires human beings to examine and verify more ballots in close contests and fewer ballots in contests with wider margins.

Press Release - Orange County, CA Elections to Conduct Risk Limiting Audit of Presidential Primary Election Results


Risk Limiting Audit Results

The Orange County Registrar of Voters reached the risk limit of 5% after auditing 708 ballots, with 0 discrepancies. 


Risk Limiting Audit Progress


  • 708 ballots audited
  • 0 discrepancies
  • 5% risk limit met


  • 628 ballots audited
  • 0 discrepancies


  • 305 ballots audited
  • 0 discrepancies


  • 180 ballots audited
  • 0 discrepancies


  • 61 ballots audited 
  • 0 discrepancies


Risk Limiting Audit Files for Download

Download the combined and complete manifest

SHA-256 hash, hex: 4333c01ba1731945bd4199a698937adbe1bd7557e0ab072a2ea80d54490e1ec4


View the Random Seed

Random seed: 10301271052264338014

  • The random seed was generated by numerous people, including members of the public, rolling ten-sided dice.
  • The random seed is used to generate the random sequence of ballots that is audited. 
  • The seed is used in conjunction with Ron Rivest's (MIT) "" pseudo-random number generator and the ballot manifest to generate the publicly verifiable random sample.  Observers can reproduce the sample independently, using for example the Pseudo-Random Number Generator using SHA-256 at


Risk Limiting Audit Hours of Operation
The audit will be performed at the Registrar of Voters office from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. until the audit is complete.